You can apply under 3 categories for Spanish Citizenship by Descent:
- Spanish by birth: if one of your parents is a Spanish citizen born in Spain.
- Fast-track naturalization after 1 year: if you have a grandparent who was a Spanish citizen or a Spanish parent born outside of Spain.
- Fast-track to naturalization after 2 years: if you are a national of Ibero-American countries and of Andorra, the Philippines, Equatorial Guinea, Portugal, or persons of Sephardic origin.
If you are in category 1, simply visit the nearest Spanish consulate and get your identification made.
Fast-Track Naturalization To Spanish Citizenship
Naturalization to Spanish citizenship normally requires 10 years of continuous residence and the renunciation of your other citizenships. With the Spanish Citizenship by Ancestry stream, you can apply for naturalization after only 1 or 2 years of residence in Spain. Recently, the Spanish authorities relaxed their physical presence requirements for those applying through the ancestry stream. You are only required to spend no more than 3 months continuously outside of Spain (meaning you can travel back and forth every 3 months and only spend a handful of days in Spain a year, if that’s your desire).
Naturalization after 1 year:
- For persons born in Spanish territory.
- The widower or widow of a Spanish national, if, at the time of the death of the spouse, they were not separated in fact or legally.
- Those born outside Spain to a Spanish father or mother (also born outside Spain), grandfather or grandmother, provided that all were originally Spanish.
Naturalization after 2 years:
For nationals of the countries below or persons of Sephardic origin: