There are many reasons to apply for Spanish citizenship: from getting the right to vote in elections to faster airport queues – but the process can sometimes be long and confusing. Here’s a list of the requirements, and a step by step guide for the application process.
Here are the steps to follow if you want to apply for Spanish nationality.
There are various different ways you can apply for Spanish citizenship: by residency after living in Spain for a few years, by marrying a Spanish national, or through Spanish family members.
However, the main downside of applying for Spanish nationality and becoming a Spanish citizen is that you will need to renounce your original nationality in order to do so. If you don’t want to renounce your nationality, you can always apply for permanent residency instead, and renew it every 5 years.
But if you want to get a Spanish passport or ID, there are different ways to do it. Below are the different requirements depending on your status, followed by a step by step guide on the application process.
Types of application
1. Citizenship by residency
The amount of time you have to wait before you apply for citizenship may vary depending on where you’re from and your family ties:
Apart from living in Spain for the required amount of years, you must also make sure you meet the following requirements.
2. Citizenship by marriage
You can get citizenship by marriage if you are married to a Spanish citizen and have been a resident in Spain for 1 year. Civil partnerships or divorced couples are not valid.
Once you are married, you will be able to get a residence and work authorisation through the ‘family member of an EU’ visa.
You will need to submit your marriage certificate, which should show that the marriage is registered in Spain. So if you got married abroad, you’ll have to take this extra step.
3. Citizenship by option
Getting citizenship by option is when you get citizenship after one of your family members have already got theirs. For example, people who can benefit from citizenship by option are children of foreign citizens who were born in the Spanish territory, people over 18 years old who were adopted by Spanish nationals, or those who are or have been subjected to the custody of a Spaniard.
If you are a foreigner and your children were born in Spain, there is the possibility that they are directly considered Spanish (citizenship by presumption).
4. Citizenship by descent
Children of Spanish parents can get Spanish citizenship very easily. Until recently, grandchildren of Spanish citizens could not get Spanish nationality this way, but with the recent “Ley de nietos” (grandchildren law) has changed this.
The Application process
1. Study for and take the required exams
2. Prepare all the required documents
First of all, get your documents ready. Keep in mind that some may differ depending on the type of citizenship application:
1. Passport and NIE number
2. Current residence permit.
3. Birth certificate
4. Criminal records. It’s important that you don’t have any criminal records, but you can get accepted if you had a minor issue.
5. Marriage certificate (if applying for citizenship by marriage)
6. Current census and padrón
7. The certificates you will receive after passing the two required exams DELE A2 and CCSE
8. If you want to give your children the possibility of getting citizenship by option, you should also include their birth certificates
9. Proof of payment for the corresponding fee (around 100€)
3. Submit your application
Once you have all the paperwork ready, you have two ways of submitting your application. You can either submit it in person at the Civil Registry or you can do it online.
4. Make your pledge of allegiance
Once it has been approved you have 6 months to get an appointment for the pledge of allegiance or jura de nacionalidad, which you can book with the Civil Registry. This is the last step in the process of obtaining nationality in Spain, in which you must swear to respect the Spanish constitution, the king, and the legal system in general. This is a formal obligatory act.
You can now also make an appointment for the oath with a notary (notario), an option that could significantly speed up the process. The vast majority of Civil Registries are very saturated, so getting an appointment can take months, especially in large cities like Madrid or Barcelona. The Spanish College of Notaries will assign you a notary on duty.
5. Get your new Spanish documents
Finally, you can go to your local police station with the documents you are given in previous steps, and get your Spanish passport and DNI.
6. Apply for a concordance certificate
You will also have to request a concordance certificate (certificado de concordancia), a document that allows you to certify that you are the same person who appears in records with your NIE number and your old passport. Depending on which region you live in, you will need to make an appointment before requesting this document at the police station. You can book an appointment here.
However, you can request this document the same day you get your DNI. If you do it later, you will have to wait 4 to 5 working days.
How long does it take to get Spanish nationality?
Getting Spanish nationality usually takes 2 to 3 years.
Once you submit your application, the Spanish government has a period of 1 year to legally submit their response. You can check the status of your application on the “cómo va lo mío” platform.
You are allowed to travel outside Spain while you wait for a resolution, but not for long periods of time. You must comply with certain requirements: you can’t lose your residence in Spain, and you need to attend the appointment to make your pledge of allegiance on time.
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Becoming a Spanish Citizen may be easier than you think.